Monday, September 30, 2019
The New Craftsmanship Iris van Herpen? and her Inspiration Ã¢â¬Å"With my work I intend to show that fashion can certainly have an added value to the worldÃ¢â¬ In the Centraal Museum of Utrecht, Netherlands, renowned fashion designer/artist Iris van Herpen (1984) exhibits a highly personal side of her work for the public from 29 June until 9 October 2011. By contrasting her designs with what worked as the inspiration behind them, van HerpenÃ¢â¬â¢s futuristic approach to fashion is displayed with art dating back to the sixteenth to the nineteenth century creating an unusual opposition in the general mood of the show.In addition to a contrast between old and new, one will also find work by other contemporary artists that have inspired van Herpen or collaborated with her. These include artists such as American-born sculptor Kris Kuksi; Dutch choreographer Nanine Linning; hat designers Stephen Jones and Irene Bussemaker; Dutch artist Bart Hess who shares van HerpenÃ¢â¬â¢s futurist ic approach in his work; and architect Daniel Widrig whose main influence in the show was with 3D printing. Upon entering the exhibition one enters a calm space with soft music playing in the background.Looking up towards the high raised ceiling you can see Nanine LinningÃ¢â¬â¢s opera inspired performance piece with van HerpenÃ¢â¬â¢s extravagant costumes and haute couture creations in larger than life projections on the bare white walls. Below these displays one would find the original costumes as seen in the performance. Referring back to the contrast between old and new, or rather ancient and innovative, it was interesting to note which of van HerpenÃ¢â¬â¢s designs were paired up with what ancient artefact and why.Leaving the theatricality of Linning behind, the show carries you away from the modernity of projectors through to a series of antique items including a bookshelf, chairs and tables as well as paintings by the popular Parisian painter Pierre Joseph Sauvage and an e xpensive silk wall panel from Lyon in France. These were shown next to one of van HerpenÃ¢â¬â¢s more Ã¢â¬ËwearableÃ¢â¬â¢ garments, a dress, which could be assumed to be made of fabric containing metal threads, having been concentinaed to create a voluminous shape reminiscent of coral reefs. Similar to the layout of the exhibition, VanHerpenÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to fashion stems from the interaction between handmade, an old-fashioned method of construction, and innovation, through constant pursuit of new techniques and materials. One of van HerpenÃ¢â¬â¢s most recently discovered techniques is a form of rapid prototyping called 3D printing. This technology came into use in 2003 mainly for duplicating valuable artefacts for museums. Cleverly, through collaboration with architect Daniel Widrig, van Herpen uses this technology to create what looks like sculpted dresses or headgear, once again reminiscent of the shape of coral reefs or some sorts of skeletal forms.This side of van He rpenÃ¢â¬â¢s collection was shown alongside work of goldsmiths form the seventeenth-century. This juxtapose truly emphasized the origins of the inspiration for her designs. There was an apparent connection between the auricular styled crockery, plates, crowns etc. and her laser sintering technique. With further regard to the 3D printing technique, the designer herself believes, Ã¢â¬Å"it is a matter a time before we can print the clothing we wear todayÃ¢â¬ .It is truly inspiring to see an artist of such a young age produce something that has the prospects of having a massive impact on the industry itself and, well, everything really. If we can produce our clothing with 3D printing technology, maybe we can also produce furniture through the same process, or even houses, maybe even bridges and buildings. Just imagine! As for the overall impression of the exhibition itself; the concept and story behind it was thoughtful and interesting, the layout was appealing, and the work itself was beautiful and innovative.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Consumers make many buying decisions every day, and the buying decision is the focal point of the marketerÃ¢â¬â¢s effort. Most large companies research consumer buying decisions in great detail to answer questions about what consumers buy, where they buy, how and how much they buy, when they buy, and why they buy. Marketers can study actual consumer purchases to find out what they buy, where, and how much. But learning about the whys of consumer buying behavior is not so easyÃ¢â¬âthe answers are often locked deep within the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. Often, consumers themselves donÃ¢â¬â¢t know exactly what influences their purchases. Ã¢â¬Å"The human mind doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t work in a linear way,Ã¢â¬ says one marketing expert. Ã¢â¬Å"The idea that the mind is a computer with storage compartments where brands or logos or recognizable packages are stored in clearly marked folders that can be accessed by cleverly written ads or commercials simply doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t exist. Instead, the mind is a whirling, swirling, jumbled mass of neurons bouncing around, colliding and continuously creating new concepts and thoughts and relationships inside every single personÃ¢â¬â¢s brain all over the world.Ã¢â¬ The central question for marketers is as follows: How do consumers respond to various marketing efforts the company might use? The starting point is the stimulus-response model of buyer behavior shown in Figure 5.1. This figure shows that marketing and other stimuli enter the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"black boxÃ¢â¬ and produce certain responses. Marketers must figure out what is in the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s black box. Marketing stimuli consist of the four Ps: product, price, place, and promotion. Other stimuli include major forces and events in the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s environment: economic, technological, political, and cultural. All these inputs enter the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s black box, where they are turned into a set of buyer responses: the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s brand and company relationship behavior and what he or she buys, when, where, and how often. Marketers want to understand how the stimuli are changed into responses inside the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s black box, which has two parts. First, the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s characteristics influence how he or she perceives and reacts to the stimuli. Second, the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s decision process itself affects his or her behavior. We look first at buyer characteristics as they affect buyer behavior and then discuss the buyer decision process. Many levels of factors affect our buying behaviorÃ¢â¬âfrom broad cultural and social influences to motivations, beliefs, and attitudes lying deep within us. For example, why did you buy that specific cell phone? Consumer purchases are influenced strongly by cultural, social, personal, and psychological characteristics, as shown in Figure 5.2. For the most part, marketers cannot control such factors, but they must take them into account. Cultural Factors Cultural factors exert a broad and deep influence on consumer behavior. Marketers need to understand the role played by the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s culture, subculture, and social class. Culture Culture is the most basic cause of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s wants and behavior. Human behavior is largely learned. Growing up in a society, a child learns basic values, perceptions, wants, and behaviors from his or her family and other important institutions. A child in the United States normally learns or is exposed to the following values: achievement and success, individualism, freedom, hard work, activity and involvement, efficiency and practicality, material comfort, youthfulness, and fitness and health. Every group or society has a culture, and cultural influences on buying behavior may vary greatly from country to country. A failure to adjust to these differences can result in ineffective marketing or embarrassing mistakes. Subculture Each culture contains smaller subcultures, or groups of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations. Subcultures include nationalities, religions, racial groups, and geographic regions. Many subcultures make up important market segments, and marketers often design products and marketing programs tailored to their needs. Examples of four such important subculture groups include Hispanic American, African American, Asian American, and mature consumers. Hispanic American Consumers The nationÃ¢â¬â¢s nearly 50 million Hispanic consumers have an annual buying power of more than $950 billion, a figure that will grow to an estimated $1.4 trillion by 2013. Hispanic consumer spending has grown at more than twice the rate of general-market spending over the past four years. Although Hispanic consumers share many characteristics and behaviors with the mainstream buying pubic, there are also distinct differences. They tend to be deeply family oriented and make shopping a family affair; children have a big say in what brands they buy. Perhaps more important, Hispanic consumers, particularly first-generation immigrants, are very brand loyal, and they favor brands and sellers who show special interest in them. African American Consumers With an annual buying power of $913 billion, estimated to reach $1.2 trillion by 2013, the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s 42 million African American consumers also attract much marketing attention. The U.S. black population is growing in affluence and sophistication. Although more price conscious than other segments, blacks are also strongly motivated by quality and selection. Brands are important. So is shopping. Black consumers seem to enjoy shopping more than other groups, even for something as mundane as groceries. In recent years, many companies have developed special products, appeals, and marketing programs for African American consumers. For example, P&GÃ¢â¬â¢s roots run deep in this market. P&G has long been the leader in African American advertising, spending nearly twice as much as the second-place spender. It has a long history of using black spokespeople in its ads, beginning in 1969 with entertainer Bill Cosby endorsing Crest. Today, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll see Angela Bassett promoting the benefits of Olay body lotion for black skin, Derek Jeter discussing the virtues of Gillette razors and deodorant, and Queen Latifah in commercials promoting a Cover Girl line for women of color. In addition to traditional product marketing efforts, P&G also supports a broader Ã¢â¬Å"My Black Is BeautifulÃ¢â¬ movement. Asian American Consumers Asian Americans are the most affluent U.S. demographic segment. They now number nearly 15 million and wield more than $500 billion in annual spending power, expected to reach $750 billion in 2013. They are the second fastest-growing population sub segment after Hispanic Americans. And like Hispanic Americans, they are a diverse group. Chinese Americans constitute the largest group, followed by Filipinos, Asian Indians, Vietnamese, Korean Americans, and Japanese Americans. Asian consumers may be the most tech-savvy segment; more than 90 percent of Asian Americans go online regularly and are most comfortable with Internet technologies such as online banking. As a group, Asian consumers shop frequently and are the most brand conscious of all the ethnic groups. They can be fiercely brand loyal. As a result, many firms are now targeting the Asian American market, companies like State Farm, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s, Verizon, Toyota, and Wal-Mart. For example, among its many other Asian American targeting efforts, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has built a special Web site for this segment (www.myinspirasian.com), offered in both English and Asian languages. The fun and involving, community-oriented site highlights how McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is working with and serving the Asian American community. Mature Consumers As the U.S. population ages, mature consumers are becoming a very attractive market. By 2015, when all the baby boomers will be 50-plus, people ages 50 to 75 will account for 40 percent of adult consumers. By 2030, adults ages 65 and older will represent nearly 20 percent of the population. And these mature consumer segments boast the most expendable cash. The 50-plus consumer segment now accounts for nearly 50 percent of all consumer spending, more than any current or previous generation. They have 2.5 times the discretionary buying power of those ages 18 to 34. As one marketing executive puts it, they have Ã¢â¬Å"assets, not allowances.Ã¢â¬ Despite some financial setbacks resulting from the recent economic crisis, mature consumers remain an attractive market for companies in all industries, from pharmaceuticals, furniture, groceries, beauty products, and clothing to consumer electronics, travel and entertainment, and financial services. Social Factors A consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior also is influenced by social factors, such as the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s small groups, family, and social roles and status. Social class Relatively permanent and ordered divisions in a society whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors. Group Two or more people who interact to accomplish individual or mutual goals. Groups and Social Networks Many small groups influence a personÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. Groups that have a direct influence and to which a person belongs are called membership groups. In contrast, reference groups serve as direct (face-to-face) or indirect points of comparison or reference in forming a personÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes or behavior. People often are influenced by reference groups to which they do not belong. For example, an aspirational group is one to which the individual wishes to belong, as when a young basketball player hopes to someday emulate basketball star LeBron James and play in the National Basketball Association (NBA) Marketers try to identify the reference groups of their target markets. Reference groups expose a person to new behaviors and lifestyles, influence the personÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes and selfconcept, and create pressures to conform that may affect the personÃ¢â¬â¢s product and brand choices. The importance of group influence varies across products and brands. It tends to be strongest when the product is visible to others whom the buyer respects.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
International Standardization and Information-Communication Industries - Essay Example The reasons for this difference in the electronics companies in the United States and Japan can be traced to historical reasons. In Japan during the early 1960s, the Ministry of the Economy, Trade and Industry helped in the formulation of trade agreements wherein each Japanese developer of computer systems was paired with a counterpart in the United States, with the objective being that of ensuring JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in the electronic revolution and to enable it to compete with IBM which was then the most important player in the market for computer systems.(Hagiu, 2005). The result of this policy was the development of incompatible systems, with operating systems for each being different depending upon which U.S. partner the Japanese company was working with; even IBM systems were sometimes incompatible with each other. Thus, in order to enhance profitability, the Japanese electronics companies found it more profitable to develop integrated systems, whereby one company manufactured highly customized systems offering free software and upgrades, as well as all the hardware component parts, sourcing distributors and suppliers and integrating them into the network of the company organization itself (Hagiu, 2005). This also resulted in a gradual elimination of the U.S. counterparts. The Japanese market is now characterized so much by specialized development of software and electronic products from vertically integrated companies that it is difficult for medium sized independent developers/companies to flourish because there is very little scope for the development of popular platforms which justifies mass scale production of software. In the United States on the other hand, the monopoly enjoyed by IBM in the 1960s and its vertically integrated structure was affected after an antitrust suit was filed against the Company (Hagiu, 2005). Due to this suit, there was a public hue and cry against monopolization
Friday, September 27, 2019
Criminal law - Research Paper Example The field of criminal law has to be lean and presentable for the sake of shortening the road to justice. One of what now constitutes a criminal offence and ought to be repealed is public drunkenness and nuisance. The law is not quite defined and it is not strange to see most of the criminals in one way or the other to incriminated with crimes related to drunkenness. Two factors are always considered before one is construed to have committed a criminal offence. This is guilty act and guilty mind, while a guilty act is the nature and form of behaviors that individuals poses a guilty mind on the other is the situation in which an individual is self professed as facing guilt (Peter, 189). A combination of the two constitutes a criminal offence and clearly, this is lacking in the case of public drunkenness. A public drunkard has no guilty mind or guilty act. Criminalizing such kind of cases as criminal is not only overburdening the public with bureaucratic system of law enforcement but al so results into giving false impression on the accused (Peter 194). The act of criminology should be clearly defined such that other activities that may be construed as negligence, indecent public exposure or act are separated from the acts of criminals. Other acts that are equally considered criminal offence and should be reconsidered are vagrancy and contravention of the traffic rules. This is a resolution realized after the courts are found to find it so hard to attend to cases due to lack of clarity resulting from them. Spreading criminal offence to include all these has also made the dispensation of justice to be a problem. This is because of the time taken to pass judgments as well as adducing evidence for and against by the prosecutor and the defendant respectively. There are also tendency that the prosecutor do threaten the accused to compound the charges for not pleading guilty and entering into a trial with such parties in the critical conditions (Peter, 201). There will b e a perception that if such activities are not considered as criminal, there will result a situation where several of such cases arising and even overcrowding further the corridors of justice. This is not the case, the only proposal in this case is not to criminalize the situation but the charges against those who will be found guilty of the contraventions will face the equal measure of the law. The aim of the move is to help reduce the burden of the public in response to what is considered mushrooming of criminal offences that are being enacted on a daily basis in a routine manner. This has proved to be over criminalization for the public making the lives of the public difficult in complying with all the regulations that are being enacted as criminal. The public will be enabled to observe the regulation more so those that are considered criminal offences with ease instead of creating several criminal laws at every stage in life are overburdening and irritating to the people involve d. Before a law is enacted to be a criminal offence, the legislation team should be mindful about the public and should ensure that the law meets all the facets of criminology such that it becomes enforceable in the event that the same publics contravene them. Criminalizing everything anytime is not the solution to the problems, in fact
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Maya And Spaniards In Yucatan - Essay Example Through the accounts furnished by the Spanish chronicles and other texts of historical importance that the Historians have predominantly tried to judge the invasion of an acclaimed and great civilization in pre-Columbian America. There is no denying the fact these historical accounts ensuing from the Spanish adventurers, churchmen, and booty hunters were somewhat biased in their approach towards the Mexican history (Henderson 45). These historical accounts present only the Spanish side of the story, without caring much about the Mayan perspective regarding the Spanish invaders (Henderson 45). Many times the historians never cared to bother that perhaps the conquered Mexicans may have set their own versions of the Spanish invasion of America. So a great part of the Mayan side of the story is known through the works compiled by Mexicans in their native language, which managed to survive the ravages of the Spanish Invasion. Though it is a fact that both the Spanish and Mexican accounts tell the same story, yet, these two sets of historical text tend to differ immensely in what they decide to convey and how they try to convey it. Though the modern historians of the European origins tend to outline varied cultural, moral and religious motivations that supported the Spanish invasion of the Native American civilizations, still even a cursory perusal of the Spanish invaders brings to fore the fact that the Spanish invasion was predominantly ruled and guided by economic and pecuniary motives (Patch 22). Many accounts of the Spanish encounters with the Mayan diplomatic missions strongly unravel the fact that the Spaniards tried to evaluate the gifts extended by the Mayans in a profit to loss context, without delving specifically on the artistic and cultural relevance of those gifts.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Porters Six Forces on Business - Research Paper Example One of the routes to success for this business is its ability to understand its rivalsÃ¢â¬â¢ actions and marketing techniques. The extent to which competition exists among rivals varies between sectors and the market sectors in them. The food industry and specifically the retail segment is very competitive (Mollona, 2010:27). Considering that this business is in the food retail sector, it must recognize the presence of an extent of competition in the industry. There are a lot of companies and their products are tailored to outmatch each other (Wetherley & Otter, 2011:37). As a result, this business must know what it faces and might face in its operations. Failure to do this will probably contribute to its downfall before the six-month window closes. However, regardless of the number of rivals, this business faces it is important for its durability that it understands the differences between its competitors. This information is vital when designing its strategy and it cannot be acco mplished by simply employing two indices, e.g. the company size and market share, or sales income and market capitalization (French, 2009:12). The business should use two indices to gauge its competitive edge and those of its competitors: HHI (Herfindahl-Hirschman Index)This is more sophisticated than the CRx. It measures the size of firms in relation to the sector and shows the level of competition amongst these firms (Boone, 2012:39). The HHI also provides more weighting to large firms.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
The Impact of Globalization on Business Enviroment - Assignment Example By itself, globalization is a change that stimulated millions of business transactions which offered millions of products and services that consumers from all over the world can choose from. This resulted to a very competitive market as cheap imports came in from big markets like China. However, the local economy of a less developed country bore the impact of these cheap goods especially if the goods were in direct competition against their products. In many countries with poor competitive advantage, this meant survival of the fittest as small shops would compete with huge retail giants such as Wal-Mart. Eventually, mom and pop stores closed as consumers trekked to bigger stores that offered variety. Another reality that globalization presented to business is the possibility of outsourcing jobs due to lower costs. Hence, many companies downsized creating collateral damage to stakeholders like employees. Furthermore, globalization has decentralized or de-bureaucratized organizations i n order to create more efficient teams or departments that can be accountable for goals. Hence, the whole organizational that was once rigid had to change by removing structures and becoming an open system that can accommodate changes brought upon by technology. Even the speed and method of communication within organizations have changed as workers can now telecommute. All communication platforms such as electronic gadgets (mobile phones, notebooks, iPad) became instant necessities in a globalized wired world. Economic elements like international trade and integration of financial markets are not the only aspects to consider since human migration plays a major role in determining the success of globalization. As such, multinational sent many senior managers to different parts of the world; it meant adopting not only to a new set up but to local culture and language as well. In fact, many CEOs found it challenging to adjust to the business culture of the Chinese for a good reason Ã¢â ¬â their value system and their language was all too foreign.Ã
Monday, September 23, 2019
Report Writing - Assignment Example The suspect was identified as Ricky Moon, a white male, aged 22 years; with a height, 6Ã¢â¬â¢; weighing, 192; at the moment he was wearing blue jeans and a ski cap. The officer immediately transported him back to the bank in an attempt of finding witnesses who would help with the suspect identification. Beamer and Katz who were both present during the process of the robbery positively identified the suspect. Following the positive identification, Judge L.C Green gave out a search warrant for the green Ford pickup that was bearing a New York licence TFH 789 and at that time was being driven by Ricky Moon and later found to be registered to the same man. The following items were obtained from the truck; 38 calibre blue steel revolver having serial number of 78695, a 4-inch barrel, black rubber grips, Green money bag, top zipper of First National Bank of New York, a Blue ski cap having eye holes cut within the fabric, a pair of blue jeans with red dye stains, black boots, pump shotgun, brown wood stock having the serial number of 436790 and $5,000 in $100 bills all of this materials were found in the suspects truck and are directly related to the above stated robbery. The witnesses at the crime scene; Frank Beamer and Jo Katz testified that on 20th of January, 2008 at around 1.30 pm a robbery occurred at the First National Bank of New York. The robber who carried out the offence was described as a white man, in blue jeans, wearing black shoes, in his twenties and also wearing a fabric on the head having holes cut in the fabric. Both witnesses stated to have observed that the suspected robber was in possession of two guns and also was wearing a jacket; moreover both added that the man was either in his twenties or early thirties. However there are some of the reported attributes by the two witnesses which are contradicting like Katz reported that the suspect had black hair and blue eyes, whereas Beamer reported the suspect to be having
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Organisational Behaviour - Assignment Example pre-entry and post-entry individual-level criteria. This paper contains information collected from a series of published articles, presentations from different conferences, working papers and dissertation projects. Unpublished works and in-press research works are also a part of data collection for this paper. Strengths The meta-analysis is conducted after considering a large collection of resources and keeping aside certain aspects of the variables as exclusions. One can find noteworthy heterogeneity in the process of conceptualizing and measuring the fit. This comes from a thorough understanding of the fitÃ¢â¬â¢s impact on individual level outcomes. In the later part of this paper, an underlying principle, drawn from the existing theories, has been provided for the conceptual and methodological issues. It is expected that these issues would moderate the relationships between fit-outcome. The meta analyses, the criteria and moderator analyses for the four kinds of fit are represen ted in a well structured tabular form. This makes it easy to study the outcomes and make a comparison among the results. Weaknesses This paper is a qualitative review of literature existing on person-interaction fit. However, the relationships cannot be flawlessly captured by running polynomial regression. Besides, in metadata analysis measurement errors remain due to lack of reliability of measurement of fits. The paper does not contain any first hand data or primary research. Nor does it contain any raw data collected and analyzed. It is rather a survey of literatures and quantification of the information gathered. Above all methodological flaws do exist in the studies considered. For instance, the reliabilities for the variables were not reported and not corrected for measurement error. Again, polynomial regression does not support fit analysis at times. Practically no research has been conducted on validation of multidimensional approaches. Suggestions for improvement Criteria l eading to the results of the meta analysis are found to have been predicted by the different sorts of relationships in person-environment interaction. These relationships are subject to change with continuous flow of modernization. Thus these relationships would not adhere to the symmetrical notions of good fit. Hence this research can be revisited after exploring the individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ cognitive schemas. More attention could be focused on other dimensions of fit which are unexplored. This could include the different types of PG and PS fit along with the types of PO fit. The idea of taking fit as a dependent variable also needs to be reconsidered. Knowledge sharing, organizational climate, and innovative behavior: cross-level analysis of effects Yu, Yu and Yu (2013) have presented their paper titled Ã¢â¬Å"Knowledge sharing, organizational climate, and innovative behavior: cross-level analysis of effectsÃ¢â¬ with the purpose of investigating behavior of employees, interaction am ong the employees and their level of knowledge and the climate of innovation in the organization. Primary research has been conducted for the methodology of research. Through the study, it has been discovered that there is a positive a positive relationship between the climate of organizational behavior and innovative behavior. There were two levels of instrument for the collection
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Prejudice In Organizations Essay ?Question 2: Prejudice can be hurtful and destructive discuss how you can personally reduce prejudice in your workplace please provide an example. Prejudice can be described as a word which is derived from the Latin word Prae Judicium meaning Ã¢â¬Ëto try in advanceÃ¢â¬â¢ (Clawson et al: 1990). Prejudice happens when we pre-judge individuals on first encounter about their character or appeal. Most individuals who are prejudiced are usually rigid in their prejudices and their beliefs are unsubstantiated. Prejudice can create serious tension in an organization because it has the potential to strain interpersonal relationships in a workplace. People can practice prejudices in various forms. Some of the areas of potential prejudice could be gender, race, age, religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity and physical disabilities. Prejudices can be systematically dealt with in the workplace. I work for one of the United Nations (UN) agencies. The UN has noted and is mindful of potential prejudices that can exist in the workplace, especially that the workplace is made up of employees from various countries, backgrounds, ethnic groupings, varying religious beliefs (including atheists), sexual orientation, races and as an organization, The organisation has a very diverse workforce. This diversity has not been ignored. The UN has taken deliberate steps to introduce workplace policies that encourage tolerance amongst employees and in turn, tolerance in the communities in which we serve. The policies are part of the orientation package for every new employee who joins the UN. There are Executive Directives (EXDs) that are issued and reviewed on an ongoing basis. In the current directive, disagreement between a staff member and supervisor is not considered as prejudice. The policies are clear on the definition of prejudices and also on the consequences of perpetuating the vice. If I were to be found in a work environment where prejudices are rife, I would first of all admit that prejudices are real and we all have some form of prejudices. The first step to deal with a problem is to admit that you have one. You can only begin to work on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s prejudices once they realize they have them, and they can begin to work more carefully with the prejudices of others without anger and force (Clawson et al: 1990). ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a realization that we all have them that helps us to deal with them. Members of staff in an organization, must be allowed to deal with perceived prejudices. It is not advisable to pretend that the problem does not exist as it becomes difficult to deal with a hidden or unperceived problem. Once the problem has been identified, then comes the process of working on your own as well as the prejudices of others in the organisation. This can be achieved through redirecting prejudiced statements by colleagues towards functional discrimination e. g. instead of lamenting how a workmate or subordinate is not achieving her objectives because she is a woman, this can be countered by a statement that shows how previously, a male colleague had also failed in a similar position to show that, gender has nothing to do with functioning in a position. For prejudices which are merely based on ignorance like Ã¢â¬Å"all Muslims are terroristsÃ¢â¬ , it would be helpful to team up Muslim staff members and some of the staff members who are holding on to this kind of prejudice. That way, it allows them to interact at a personal level and get the truth about Islam. If this doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t work, then interactions between such colleagues should either be kept to the minimum or topics of discussion should stir away from sensitive issues. I would also learn to listen to others with an open mind, not listening with an intention to respond as this is likely to attract judgmental behaviour. In a multi ethnic organisation, learning about the cultures of other countries helps us be more tolerant. People are more likely to react in a certain way because of the environments they have been brought up in. Prejudices will always exist in organisations, it would therefore helpful to encourage tolerance among employees, this can be achieved through deliberate company policy, sensitisation and clear consequences for behaviour promotes prejudice.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Tackling Problem Behaviour in Classrooms | Case Study Single Subject Design Abstract The following addresses the case study level C, case 2. It concludes on how to tackle problem behavior faced by teachers in class rooms through single subject research designs and offers a few solutions on how to counter act them. Dependent Variable The dependent variables (DV) in this case are two specific behaviors demonstrated by Rachel, which are: Not raising her hand before answering a question Unnecessarily communicating with her peers during class lecture Independent Variable The independent variable (IV) will be the response of the teachers to RachelÃ¢â¬â¢s problematic behavior, that is how they reprimand her and the corrective measures they take to correct her behavior in class so that she learns to follow the class room norms and maintain discipline and abides by the rules similar to her peers. Behavior Which Needs To Be Changed Rachel demonstrates two sets of behavior related to disturbing classroom discipline which she needs to rectify in order to maintain the decorum of the class room. Firstly, Rachel needs to learn to raise her hand before answering questions asked by her teachers during comprehension and reading activities like everyone else instead of just blurting out answers without being called upon or waiting her turn. Secondly, she must learn not to pass notes to her friends or talk to her peers during class unnecessarily and pay attention to the lecture and focus on what is being taught. Single Subject Research Designs (SSRD) In SSRD, basically, the participant is passed through a non-treatment (baseline) and a treatment (experimental condition) phase and his performance is identified during each phase. Since Rachel is the only one in her class demonstrating problem behavior, she will be the only test subject and will act as her own control group. In this type of design a non-treatment stage is first initiated till the performance in question validates steadiness. When the behavior becomes steady, the treatment stage is started. Since RachelÃ¢â¬â¢s obtrusive behavior is already very consistent we can move on to the next phase in our research design. Based on the data collected through direct observation of RachelÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior, in Mr. Smith and Mrs. PatelÃ¢â¬â¢s biology class during reading and comprehension activities, and the personal insight of the observer a treatment plan for Rachel will be developed as a corrective measure for her behavior. The behavior in demand, the dependent variable in the experiment, that is, Rachel not raising her hand before answering a question and passing notes to her friends in class and talking to her peers will be measured through appropriate data collection methods. In this scenario event recording (frequency of the target behavior is noted with each one having a specific beginning and end) and interval recording (observation of an individual during specified observation periods divided into equal time intervals) will be most appropriate. The observer has to be discrete while collecting data so that the subject remains unaware that he/she is being observed as this might cause them to bec ome cautious and change their pattern of behavior causing distortion in the data collected leading to incorrect results. It is always wiser to assess a group of students than a single individual as to ward off suspicion. (Sachse-Lee) The event recording chart shows on which specific occasions Rachel has spoken out of turn in class and on which ones she waited to be called on. A written record provides an actual proof of her behavior and provides a justification for taking corrective measures against her actions. The interval recording chart shows how many times the problem behavior has occurred over a specific period of time. If the frequency of occurrence of problem behavior is greater than what otherwise might be considered normal, it calls for corrective measures to be taken to correct the situation, which is the case for Rachel. The results of a single subject experiment are classically understood by mentioning to the behavioral chart in which the data is shown graphically. For example, the Ã¢â¬Ënumber of lecturesÃ¢â¬â¢ can be plotted on the x-axis and the Ã¢â¬Ënumber of times hand raised before answering a questionÃ¢â¬â¢ can be plotted on the y-axis. The effectiveness of IV can be measured by the direction of the behavior before and after the experimental condition was implemented. Statistics are not usually used to understand the outcomes of single subject experiments but if the slope of curve moves upwards and becomes steeper it means that Rachel raised her hand before answering a question a greater number of times after the implementation of experimental conditions than she did under the baseline conditions. A distinct slope is stronger indication that the behavior is varying than if the slope is a gentle one. (Strain) ABA Change Format An ABA design is such type of single subject research design in which contributors are first presented to a baseline state (A). In the baseline state, no treatment or experimental variable is presented. After this the participants obtain the experimental state or treatment (B), after which they arrive to the baseline condition (A). The ABA design enables the experimenters to detect behavior before treatment, throughout treatment and after the treatment. To establish a course of action or experimental conditions to rectify RachelÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior is important to first establish goals, that is, what is hopped to be accomplished after the experiment or what kind of short term and long term behavioral changes are expected to be demonstrated by Rachel. Short term Rachel raises her hand to answer and awaits her turn to speak in class. Rachel stops talking to her peers unnecessarily during lectures or pass notes to her friends. Rachel concentrates more on what is being taught and improves her grades. Long term Rachel discontinues all problem behavior and learns to follow the discipline and norms of any institute that she may attend after graduating and develops a sense of responsibility and maturity. Teachers are faced with challenges even before they begin to educate students. Not only are teachers responsible for teaching the core academic subjects such as reading, math, science, and social studies, but teachers are also presented with nonacademic challenges that influence their instruction (Lassen, Steele, Sailor, 2006). First of all, in the face of discretion Rachel cannot be made to feel the center of attention or that steps to rectify her behavior are being taken. As this can cause her to rebel and worsen the condition by making her behavior more extreme. Secondly, sending Rachel to the office every time she demonstrates any kind of problem behavior must be terminated. It only makes her feel like she is being bullied or unfairly targets. Under both these scenarios RachelÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior cannot be improved or rectified. A more group focused approach is required for positive results. The entire class should be told what kind of behavior constitutes as acceptable or unacceptable in class with a set of rules mandatory for all to follow under the pretense that problem behavior will lead to negative marking which will affect their grades. Another approach can be to reinforce positive behavior instead of punishing negative behavior. Students who behave in a desirable or exemplary manner in class can be rewarded via a small token of appreciation, which be wither verbal appreciation, a piece of candy or deciding which chapter to be quizzed on. The teachers can be as creative as they like. Bibliography Sachse-Lee, C. (n.d.). A Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject. Retrieved March Sunday, 2014, from http://ldx.sagepub.com/content/33/2/114.short Strain, S. L. (n.d.). Evidence-Based Practice in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education: Single-Subject Design Research. Retrieved March Sunday, 2014, from http://jei.sagepub.com/content/25/2/151.short How Can a Midwife Support the Family? How Can a Midwife Support the Family? Title: Describe the positive and negative aspects of being in the NUCLEAR FAMILY. How can the midwife support the NUCLEAR FAMILY. Undergraduate Degree Level Essay 2,500 words Essay The family unit is an entity which is defined by environment and culture as much as behaviour. Different civilisations and cultures will define Ã¢â¬Å"the familyÃ¢â¬ in different ways. Economic considerations are often paramount in the transition from an extended family to the nuclear family and social commentators often refer to the difficulties in establishing a new household base (in areas of high rent or commercial property value) as being one of the major obstacles to the emergence of the nuclear family as the common features of society. To quote Margaret Mead: Nobody has ever before asked the nuclear family to live all by itself in a box the way we do. With no relatives, no support, weve put it in an impossible situation. It is not surprising perhaps that members of the nuclear family can find themselves in emotional and practical turmoil. (Mead M 1972) Cultural factors may also be significant such as the Hindu Ã¢â¬Å"joint familyÃ¢â¬ where a marriage will being two family groups together as one family unit. (Bengtson V L 2001) The first task in this essay is to describe and define the nuclear family. It first appeared in the scientific literature just after the war and was used to describe the family structure of a mother, father and their children. A formal definition could be: The nuclear family is a social group characterised by common residence, economic cooperation and reproduction. It contains adults of both sexes, at least two of whom maintain a socially approved sexual relationship, and one or more children, own or adopted, of the sexually cohabiting adults. (Murdock, G P 1949). In modern social literature it is also sometimes used in the context of stable single parent families or families where the parents are a non-conjugal couple. In this essay we shall consider the nuclear family to be in the original Murdock tradition. In the context of the implications for midwifery, we should also consider the implications of a being nuclear family. The literature often describes its positive features as including being a haven which encourages intimacy, love and trust where individuals may escape the competition of dehumanising forces in modern societyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ a place for escape from the rough and tumble industrialised world, and as a place where warmth, tenderness and understanding can be expected from a loving mother and protection from the world can be expected from the father. (Popenoe D 1997) The family life was famously pilloried by Nancy Mitford in her autobiography: Ã¢â¬Å"The great advantage of living in a large family is that early lesson of lifes essential unfairness.Ã¢â¬ (Acton H 1999) Although this was clearly intended as a flippant comment, one can suggest that the concept of the family as a haven is still both admitted and encouraged by social scientists, but in modern UK society the mechanisms of social protection and support that are currently available to most somewhat reduces the role of the father as Ã¢â¬Å"protectorÃ¢â¬ and some commentators now add the concept of facilitating the ideal of personal fulfilment (or family fulfilment) as being the major role of the family unit The media would have us believe that society is decaying (The Guardian 2004) and cite the suggestion that the move towards self sufficiency, personal gratification and the move away from the extended family unit is evidence of that degeneration. The transfer of responsibility for the elderly from the family to the state and, to a lesser extent, the responsibility for childcare being assumed by the state is often put forward as further evidence of that decline. Such considerations are of peripheral importance to this essay and therefore will not be discussed further. We can examine the factors which are relevant to the change in prevalence of the nuclear family however, and these are often cited as Increase in sole occupancy dwellings and smaller family sizes Average age of marriage being older Average number of children decreasing and first birth at later age The historical pattern of fertility. >From baby boom to baby bust (instability) The ageing population. The trend towards greater life expectancy. Rising divorce rates and people who will never marry. (after Kidd K E et al. 2000) Clearly many of these factors have a resonance in the field of midwifery and we shall discuss them further. We should note however, that despite comments being made about the move away from the nuclear family structure that in the UK it is still the most prevalent stable family structure accounting for in excess of 70% of all households. If we consider briefly how the nuclear family developed, we can look back to the days of the industrial revolution when social scientists point to the move from the extended family unit to a mobility dictated by the absence of a welfare state and family members moving to live with others who were in employment. Such changes were seen as an influence to extend and modify the family unit as a whole. As the welfare state evolved, the economic pressures referred to above became less of a compelling factor and the nuclear family emerged. Some commentators use the term Ã¢â¬Å"dispersed extended familyÃ¢â¬ due to the fact that a nuclear family is now able to keep in functional contact with other family members through the medium of telephone, fast easy travel and now email (Shaw M et al. 2002) Other factors that have changed and that are relevant to our considerations here are the relationships between parents and their children. In the past it was comparatively common to find that parents had children for economic reasons and were typically very authoritarian. The advent of social prosperity and the social support mechanisms available to UK households now mean that the economic necessity for having children is no longer viable. Parent / child relationships are said to be more loving and warmer and children are typically allowed a longer period of childhood in modern day life. There is also a considerable body of evidence to show that children are dependent on their parents for much longer than they used to be.(Wilkinson R et al. 1998) We should not suggest that this comparatively rosy assessment of the nuclear family is the only consequence of social evolution. We can point to evidence that the traditional order of life events marriage, sex and children is becoming progressively reordered. Marriage is progressively less likely to come first and progressively more likely not to happen at all. In the last three decades the levels of cohabitation has trebled and the number of babies born outside marriage has increased fivefold. In the same period the number of single parent families has increased by a factor of three. Other significant statistics are that over the last 30 years the divorce rate has doubled which currently has the effect of finding that 50% of children under the age of 16 have had to live through their parentÃ¢â¬â¢s divorce. The midwife is often central to the portal of support systems to the newly pregnant mother and thereby to the family. The possibilities of interaction between the midwife and the family are virtually endless and the opportunities for support and guidance at a vulnerable time in life are legion. (Pennebaker J W et al. 2002). We shall therefore use a few examples by way of illustration. One of the prime reasons cited for relationship breakdown is depression in one or both partners. This is a well recognised sequel of childbirth and the midwife can clearly play a major role in spotting the early signs, enlisting prompt intervention and offering support to the whole family unit in such circumstances. (Davidson L 2000) One recent paper examined the role of the midwife in actually preventing (or minimising) the onset and severity of post natal depression with the simple expedient of holding Ã¢â¬Å"debriefingÃ¢â¬ sessions. (Small R et al. 2000). The aim was to allow the mother to verbalise her experiences and to gain support and empathy from the midwife. The paper was both long and involved but, in essence, it examined the practice of debriefing, which has been successfully employed in other fields of healthcare as a means of reducing the burden of psychological morbidity, in its application to the field of midwifery. The authors point to the fact that there has only been one other qualitative trial in this area in the field of reproductive medicine and that was after spontaneous abortion when it was found to have a marked beneficial effect. (Bland J M et al. 2000) This particular paper emphasises the role that the midwife can play in providing support. The significance is that the debriefing process, as such, does not measurably reduce the incidence of maternal depression but that the support that was provided was found to reduce the psychological distress felt by the mothers. The downside of such an intervention is that it can be seen as causing introspection and medicalising of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s symptomatology. Empathetic handling and a sympathetic approach would clearly be part of the midwifeÃ¢â¬â¢s clinical acumen (Lavender T et al. 1998) and nearly all of the women who underwent the debriefing sessions said that they found then helpful. In terms of bonding and fostering the loving relationships that were commented on earlier, one could postulate that the role of the midwife in the promotion of breastfeeding activities is fundamentally important. The literature does not show any good evidence base for this hypothesis, mainly because of the fact that it would be both hard to quantify and measure, but the trial from Graffy (J et al. 2004) does support the fact that positive help and advice from healthcare professionals in the immediate postnatal period helps to promote maternal bonding which, in turn is associated with and increase in bonding in later life (Hamlyn B et al. 2000). Curiously enough the trial did not find that the intervention significantly increased the rate of breast feeding, which may be a reflection of the fact that the modern mother in the UK is bombarded with promotional messages about breast feeding from many different sources and the intervention of the midwife is not fundamentally critical to achieving this goal. The mothers interviewed afterwards who were successful in their attempts at breast feeding commented on the fact that they felt emotionally satisfied with a greater frequency than those who were not able to do so. >From the point of view of our considerations here we should note that there were a significant number of women (26% in this trial) who positively refused any help or support from any of the healthcare professionals, and this group may well benefit from careful handling and empathetic intervention in the pregnancy when the midwife is the main healthcare professional in contact with the expectant mother. The midwife has a number of constraints upon her professional involvement and, generally by virtue of time constraints she has little time to act as a councillor to the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s problems. We should therefore consider the effect of the modern concept of the seamless interface of care and multidisciplinary team working. (Kvamme O J et al. 2001). If the midwife is working in the hospital setting and becomes aware of family difficulties she should consider it part of her professional remit to pass on her concerns and knowledge to other appropriate professionals in the healthcare team whether that is at the level of the primary healthcare team or to a specific councillor or other related agency. Clearly this is easier if the midwife is already working in the community setting (Haggerty J L et al. 2003) as both continuity and coordination are more easily controlled The thrust of this essay is to suggest that a role of the midwife is to support the newborn child as it begins its presumptive relationship with its new family and this can sometimes best be achieved by supporting the family unit during and after the birth of the child. In this regard we could finish this examination of the nuclear family with a comment from Pearl S. Buck who criticized the current system on part of emotional security aspects. He said The lack of emotional security of our young people is due, I believe, to their isolation from the larger family unit. No two people no mere father and mother as I have often said, are enough to provide emotional security for a child. He needs to feel himself one in a world of kinfolk, persons of variety in age and temperament, and yet allied to himself by an indissoluble bond which he cannot break if he could, for nature has welded him into it before he was born. (ODQ 2004) References Acton H 1999 Nancy Mitford: A Biography (Paperback) Macmillan : London 1999 Bengtson V L 2001 Journal of Marriage and Family ; Feb 2001 ; 63 , 1; Bland J M , J. Lumley, and R. Small 2000 Midwife led debriefing to reduce maternal depression BMJ, December 9, 2000 ; 321 (7274) : 1470 1470. Davidson L 2000 Psycho-social interventions in maternity care; the need for evaluation BMJ, 22 Dec 2000 Pg 24-7 Graffy J, Jane Taylor, Anthony Williams, and Sandra Eldridge 2004 Randomised controlled trial of support from volunteer counsellors for mothers considering breast feeding BMJ, Jan 2004 ; 328 : 26 ; Greif, Avner (2005). Family structure, institutions and growth: The origins and implications of Western corporatism Health Bull 2005 ; 39 : 166-72. Haggerty J L, Robert J Reid, George K Freeman, Barbara H Starfield, Carol E Adair, and Rachael McKendry 2003 Continuity of care: a multidisciplinary review BMJ, Nov 2003 ; 327 : 1219 1221 ; Hamlyn B, Brooker S, Oleinikova K, Wands S. 2000 Infant feeding 2000. London: Stationery Office, 2002. Kidd K E, Altman D G. 2000 Adherence in social context. Control Clin Trials 2000 ; 21( suppl 1) : S184 7. Kvamme O J , F Olesen, and M Samuelsson 2001 Improving the interface between primary and secondary care: a statement from the European Working Party on Quality in Family Practice (EQuiP) Qual. Health Care, Mar 2001 ; 10 : 33 39. Lavender T, Walkinshaw S A. 1998 Can midwives reduce postpartum psychological morbidity? A randomized trial. Birth 1998 ; 25 : 215 221 Mead, Margaret. 1972 Blackberry Winter: My Earlier Years. New York : William Morrow Company, Inc., 1972. Murdock, George Peter (1949). Social Structure. New York: The MacMillan Company. 1949 ODQ 2004. Hamlyn : London 2004 Pennebaker J W, A. L Teixeira Jr, H. Alvarenga-Silva, and A F Schilte 2000 Somatisation in primary care BMJ, March 2, 2002 ; 324 (7336) : 544 544. Popenoe D 1999 Can The Nuclear Family Be Revived? Society Volume 36, Number 5 / July 01, 1999 Pages: 28 30 Shaw M, Dorling D, Mitchell R. 2002 Health, place and society. Harlow: Pearson Education, 2002. Small R, Judith Lumley, Lisa Donohue, Anne Potter, and Ulla WaldenstrÃ ¶m 2000 Randomised controlled trial of midwife led debriefing to reduce maternal depression after operative childbirth BMJ, Oct 2000 ; 321 : 1043 1047. The Guardian Saturday September 25, 2004 Wilkinson R, Marmot M, ed. 1998 Social determinants of health. The solid facts. Copenhagen: WHO, 1998 : 308. ################################################################ 8.12.06 Word count 2,576 PDG
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Summary of The First Day With the loss of Forts Henry and Donelson in February, General Johnston withdrew his Confederate forces into west Tennessee, northern Mississippi and Alabama to reorganize. In early March, General Halleck responded by ordering General Grant to move his Union Army of West Tennessee on an invasion up the Tennessee River. Occupying Pittsburg Landing, Grant had no thought of a Confederate attack. Halleck's instructions were that following the arrival of General Buell's Army of the Ohio from Nashville, Grant would move south in a joint offensive to seize the Memphis & Charleston Railroad, the Confederacy's only east-west all weather supply route that linked the lower Mississippi Valley to cities on the Confederacy's east coast. Assisted by General Beauregard, Johnston shifted his forces and placed almost 55,000 men around Corinth. Strategically located where the Memphis & Charleston crossed the Mobile & Ohio Railroad, Corinth was the western Confederacy's most important rail junction. On April 3, realizing Buell would soon reinforce Grant, Johnston launched an offensive with his Army of the Mississippi. Moving upon Pittsburg Landing with 43,938 men, Johnston planned to surprise Grant, cut his army off from retreat to the Tennessee River, and drive the Federals west into the swamps of Owl Creek. In the light of dawn, April 6, a small Federal reconnaissance discovered Johnston's army deployed for battle astride the Corinth road, just a mile beyond the forward Federal camps. Storming forward, the Confederates found the Federal position unfortified. By mid-morning, the Confederates seemed within easy reach of victory, overrunning one frontline Union division and capturing its camp. However, stiff resistance on the Federal right entangled Johnston's brigades in a savage fight around Shiloh Church. Throughout the day, Johnston's army hammered the Federal right, which gave ground but did not break. Meanwhile, Johnston's attack stalled in front of Sarah Bell's peach orchard and the dense oak thicket labeled the "hornet's nest" by the Confederates. Grant's left flank withstood Confederate assaults for seven crucial hours before being forced to yield ground in the late afternoon. Despite inflicting heavy casualties and seizing ground, the Confederates only drove Grant towards the river, instead of away from it. The Federal survivors established a solid front before Pittsburg Landing and stopped the last Confederate charge as dusk ended the first day of fighting. The Second Day April 7, 1862 Shiloh's first day of slaughter also witnessed the death of the Confederate leader, General Johnston, who fell at mid-afternoon, struck down by a stray bulle.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
History of Folk Music in America "Hillbilly" music grew out of the rich tradition of British folk ballads, songs and hymns brought to North America by British settlers and then adapted to the peculiar circumstances, e.g., biographical names, place names, frontier concerns, of the North American wilderness. It is important to remember that all of the colonies were British, from Maine to Georgia. The exact ethnic origins of the south are difficult to determine and not well documented. The rural south did not attract large numbers of European immigrants in the great period of immigration (1850-1920); however, it is certain that by 1920 there had been considerable intermingling of a few ethnic groups (English, Welsh, Scottish, Scotch-Irish, German, Czechoslovakian, native Indian and African). Likewise, the ethnic origin of the music of the southern region is complex. There were Irish jigs, English and Scottish ballads and folk songs, hymns, etc. However, as Malone (1985:4) suggests, the end result of the musical melting pot was a product "more British than anything found in Great Britain today." The 1790 census report indicates that the population of the United States was 60.1% English, 14% Scotch-Irish and 3% Irish. These three groups made up 78% of the total population. The White Anglo-Saxon Protestant core culture dominated all of pre-Revolutionary America. However, for reasons we will examine later, the southern region produced a white and a black musical tradition which were significantly different from the rest of the nation. The British folk ballad is at the heart of the southern musical tradition. Three outstanding characteristics of the Briti... ...from the Middle Ages, used a four, five or six note scale which did not fall within tradition major or minor scales. The tunes were almost chants which rose and fell in pitch - usually peaking at the middle of the song and then diminishing. Instrumentation was usually non-existent and, when present, not very important to the song. In the U.S., harmony was much more important. This probably results from the importance of gospel singing. Sources Malone, Bill C. Country Music USA: Fifty Year History. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1985. Carr, Patrick (ed). The Illustrated History of Country Music. Garden City: Doubleday, 1979. Roebuck, Julian B. and Mark Hickson. The Southern Redneck: A Phenomenological Class Study. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1982.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Intoduction ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s construction market is currently in a state of over-supply, with an overreliance in the past on residential and commercial construction to drive economic growth leading to an apparent Ã¢â¬ËglutÃ¢â¬â¢ in the market (AECOM, 2013). This shift has created a number of concerns in the market, with the most prevalent the risk of further declines in house-prices in a bid to spur additional demand and correct the possible supply-demand imbalance (BREE, 2014) (Wu et al., 2014). Another risk within the market has been the levels of debt taken on by construction companies during the years of exceptional growth; since the slowdown in demand began, it has been noted that a number of developers have come under pressure, with some defaulting on payments due (Liu et al, 2014). However, it must be mentioned that despite the recent slowdown, the construction market in China still remains a key and significant part of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP and is expected to continue growing in the long-term given rising urbanisation and incomes, albeit at a lower rate (Financial Times, 2014). China will still remain an attractive market to consider for EU and US corporations; moving forward, rising labour costs, greater concerns for environmental issues and an increasing middle class will also increase the desire for ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s construction sector to develop more efficient and technological methods in a bid to lower costs, which in turn could present a number of opportunities for UK, EU companies wanting to gain access into the market (EUSME, 2013). Moving forward, both residential and commercial construction will see growth as development moves inland to western provinces looking to industrialise, while the major cities of Shanghai, Wuhan and Beijing etc will all continue to grow on urbanisation and rising populations (Wu et al, 2014). As the Chinese government looks to rebalance growth towards domestic consumption and demand, expect greater investment in infrastructure, especially investment designed to open up the western regions to the eastern, coastal cities. Change Management When considering a potential JV into the Chinese market, a business must be aware of the change management that would need to occur to effectively merge into business regulation and practices within China (Anderson, 2010) (Cameron, 2012). As noted above, the potential to form a JV based on the technology and knowledge within the company is immense as Chinese builders look to rein in costs and compete more effectively in an oversupplied market. One area of consideration for a business would be the current structure of the market, with previous research noting that the Chinese construction market is largely made up of state-owned and local private enterprises (World Bank, 2014). According to recent research undertaken (EUSME, 2013) privately-owned companies control 81% of the market, state-owned 18%, while foreign-funded firms control less than 1% of the overall market. From this, it could be assumed that regulation and business practices may restrict some international companies from moving into the market. Regulation: many companies that have attempted to establish Chinese entities have experience strong regulatory constraints; with the Chinese see protective of their domestic industry (Rowley, 2014). It has previously been noted that it is difficult to obtain building sector licenses given that Chinese provinces will favour the use of local construction companies, with corruption still a major issue to overcome (US Department of Commerce, 2012). Furthermore, it could be mentioned that China is quite risk adverse to the introduction of new building/material techniques, with regulation in place that quite often restricts the entrance of new technology into the market due to an inability for the country to assess its implications on the wider industry, which to some could be seen as a form of protectionism given that the construction sector is such as large employer within the country. While a JV may be beneficial for an international company given its access to a local market player who understands the market, the company must be wary of the technology or knowledge it would be sacrificing in the process (Cameron, 2012). It may also be noted that given current market conditions in China, some Chinese companies may be willing to form JVÃ¢â¬â¢s with Western counterparts in a bid to gain access into the recovering markets in Europe and the U.S. Again, the difference in regulation may affect the attractiveness of the Chinese market to some businesses. Business Practices: taking into account practices, it could be seen that major contracts in China have been known to be awarded more through relationships rather than product/ service quality (World Bank, 2014). To some Western companies, this may be business practices they are unwilling to follow, or in some cases unwilling to support the management change that is needed to facilitate business in the Chinese market. Taking this into account, the business must ensure that is able to trust the business and its employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s in the joint venture. Given the difference in doing business and ethics, the UK Company must ensure that the JV does not contradict its standards in the UK (Cameron, 2012). Key Characteristics: key characteristics of the market may also be of importance given that it could be assumed the Chinese growth in construction has to part been fuelled by quantity over quality. There have been a number of reports detailing the major $Billion efforts by cities within China to essentially support rapid expansion, however most of the building work appears to be of a much lower standard/ design than similar projects in the western economies. With this, it becomes a question of whether the current market in China would fit in with the interests and desired outcomes of the UK Company seeking the JV. To provide come concluding remarks, the UK must ensure that it picks a Chinese partner that meets its UK ethical standards and business practices, essentially aligning their priorities to develop a viable business plan for the JVÃ¢â¬â¢s development in the marketplace (Paton, 2008). The company must also ensure that itÃ¢â¬â¢s safeguarding its intellectual property, mainly when dealing with Chinese companies that are in need of new development/ technology to improve competitiveness in their home market. The company must also ensure that it picks a partner where it can be an equal stakeholder it he project (Bosshart et al, 2010) References AECOM (2013) Asia Construction Outlook 2014, London, AECOM. Anderson, D. and Anderson, L. (2010) Beyond Change Management, London, Wiley Publications. Bosshart, S., Luedi, T. and Wang, E. (2010) Past lessons for ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s new joint ventures, London, McKinsey & Company. BREE (2014) China Resources Quarterly: Southern Winter- Northern Summer 2014, Sydney, Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics. Cameron, E. and Green, M. (2012) Making Sense of Change Management, London, Kogan Page Publishers. EUSME (2013) The construction sector in China, Beijing, European Union Research Centre. Financial Times (2014) [Online] Doing Business in China, Available at http://im.ft-static.com/content/images/892eae14-6323-11e4-8a63-00144feabdc0.pdf, Accessed 10.11.2014. Liu, B. Wang, X. Chen. C and Ma, Z. (2014) Research into the dynamic development trend of the competitiveness of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s regional construction industry, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 18(1), pp1-10. Paton, R. and McCalman, J. (2008) Change Management: A Guide to Effective Implementation, London, SAGE Publications. Rowley, C. and Cooke, F. (2014) The changing face of management in China (Vol. 6), London, Routledge. U.S Department of Commerce. (2012) 2012 Country Commercial Guide for U.S Companies, Washington, U. Department of Commerce. World Bank. (2014) Doing Business 2015: Going Beyond Efficiency Ã¢â¬â Economy Profile 2015 China, Washington, World Bank. Wu, J. Deng, Y. and Liu, H. (2014) House price index construction in the nascent housing market: the case of China, The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, 48(3), pp522-545.
Monday, September 16, 2019
This is a book review of, With No Direction Home: Homeless Youth on the Road and in the Streets written by Marni Finkelstein. The writer gives a voice to the homeless youth and highlights on their everyday lives, the condition in which they live and the experience they go though in the streets.Furthermore, the writer through her interviews obtained first hand experience and which she writes with logical honesty, the study which she took its ethnographic methodology for the reason that she combined qualitative interviews and direct observation. The writer defines who the streets kids are hence the reader get to know how they come to be streets kids.She describes the different reasons why most of them leave their homes to end up being street youths. Their life in the streets is well tackled in the book on how they socialize in the streets and form peer networks.Ã She explains on how peer groups formed makes them use and abuse substances. Their subsistence in the streets and their da ily lives as it is explained in the book gives an insight to the readers to understand them even more.Finkelstein discusses how the youths in the streets are prone to victimization by the society; they are ill treated, oppressed and discriminated the youths reiterate by being violent for them to survive the hostile environment in which they live. The book concludes with recommendations which would be adopted to ensure that the ever increasing numbers of youths in the streets would be reduced and eventually make them leave the streets.This study falls under social anthropology as the study is done with evidence of how the streets youths, who form a group of the society currently behave in social a group. Social anthropology investigation is an intensive field studies which include participant observation methods like the ones used in this book.The study done was how social organization of the youths in the street socializes among them selves and the public. Social anthropology explor es indistinctness and contradictions of social life, sociality patterns, conflicts and violence which forms social behavior of a group of the society. It also address diversity of positions and perspective found in a social group. This is what is addressed in Finkelstein book when discussing how the street youths socialize and form peer networks which abuse substance, being victimized and violent.The research method used is ethnographic methodology, by combining direct observation and qualitative interviews to provide descriptive study of a group of human society. The study done is about street youths which are a group of human society.The research has focused on sociology through close field observations of social cultural incidents. The research is focusing on a social group and is able to study their activities and how they affect them and the society at large. It is done by interviewing informants several times using information from previous informers to ensure that the informa tion obtained is accurate and dependable to support the writers arguments.The research is done by first selection of a culture and identifications of variables which are used to obtain information from informants and gather data inform of observation and interview recording. To be precise the research method used is Micro-ethnography because itÃ¢â¬â¢s the study of narrowly-defined cultural group which in this case itÃ¢â¬â¢s the youths in the streets.When the research was being done there was resistance by the street youths to willingly disseminate information which they were being interviewed. The street youths are victimized by the society and they felt that they are not worth hence they have a feeling that they are inferior and the research being done will not be of any use to them.Trustworthy of the information obtained is one of the challenges encountered in qualitative research. For the writer to obtain a reliable source of information, interviews are done to several of the street children with the same question and compare their responses to ensure that the facts are accurate.Obtaining a sample on which the research was to be done was a challenging, as none or very few who were willing to be interviewed. On such a social study one is not supposed to influence the informers either by giving them incentives to woo them to provide information because it will be biased and wonÃ¢â¬â¢t reflect the actual scenarios under study. The interviewees are supposed to be voluntary which in this study volunteering was a problem.The youths in the streets are a subculture because they give a diversity of culture in the society. The group way of life and social phenomena is distinguishable with the normal cultural practices of a family setup where the youths are expected since they are kids to be brought up in a family setup where they are provided for until they are independent. Their social practices and ethics are far much below the set standards of a youth being brought up in their homes where the environment is conducive. Their practice is referred to as social fall out from the cultural setup acceptable by the society.The group is made up of diversified age ranges which include youth who are hard-core, refuges and immigrants, runways, squatters, young single mothers and those who are homeless because the entire family is homeless. The group lacks shelter and has difficult to obtain adequate food and they are at risk of nutritional and health problems.Even after being health wise challenged they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have access to medication this result to ailment which some times is life threatening hence they experience high mortality rate. The difficulties which they go through coupled with the drugs which they take makes them to be depressed and have mental disorders which makes them committee suicide and die due to drug overdose which have been registered as the leading cause of deaths among the street childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s.I have realized that s treet homeless youths they are a nomadic group of youths who ends up in the streets. After reading the book I come to realize that they are in the street and who they are due to circumstances which are beyond their control. Such as, the whole family being homeless or they are refuges or even single mothers. I understand that they abuse substances and are drug peddlers because of peer pressure.They are also discriminated by the society hence they are not employed to earn money this result them to be thugs, sex workers, drug dealers and participate in scams to earn so as they can sustain their livelihood. Most of them do not travel very far from their homes to the nearby cities. Travelling of the kids is not an easy task because they have little or no money so their main mode of transport is hitchhiking and train jumping which both of them are very dangerous.Most of them leave their households where there is an abusive environment or they are simply kicked out from their homes. Finkel stein stated in her book that most of them remain on the streets for a short period then they seek refuge in shelters and their underlying motives are substance abuse and sense of aimlessness.According to Finkelstein, most of the abused substances in New York is beer and heroin most of them had experimented the drug before they got out of their homes but they become serious addict after they have prolonged their inhabitance in the streets. The excuse they give is that they abuse them because they want to forget their trouble such as helplessness and poverty.This group of homeless youths exists in the society because they arose from disadvantaged families such as disrupted and dysfunctional families. Such families experience divorce, poverty, parental drug abuse, domestic violence and poverty. There is also high rate of Sexual, emotional, and physical abuse which result the children to run away from such environment. There are also a substantial number of the streets youth who run aw ay from children protection services such as childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s homes or even run away to hind from the existing criminal justice systems.After being in the streets for long this group of youths develop self-reliant skills and abilities through networks of mutual supports and spirituality. Furthermore, most of them adapt to the hard environments they are exposed to enabling them to survive for years in dangerous circumstances.I was surprised to know that the street youths are not there by choice. I thought they were in the street as there choice of life. I came to realize that they have been pushed to be at the streets by hardships / factors which they have no control on. These unfortunate youths are really discriminated by the society who does not respect them hence they do not consider them for any form of employment. I was surprised on know this discrimination makes them revolt by being drug dealers, thugs and sex workers as they strive to survive.I thought that they are young you ths who are in street as a choice they have made willingly as a way of life and they are thugs or prostitutes. I thought that they choose to be in the streets so as to pursue their interest of being drug users and dealers which they could only do it more conveniently at the streets.Most of the homeless in the streets of New York are the minor who probably have suffered a lot of hardship which got them to the streets. These minors are not given money when they borrow because itÃ¢â¬â¢s discouraged; donations are only given out to worthy charities.This book has acted as a voice to the homeless youths by highlighting who they are, how they came to be whom they are and how they exist and coexist. It has formed a source of reliable information for the readers who would need to know about the street homeless youths.Self-reliance which grew with time by the youths being in the streets for long makes it difficult to eliminate or reduce them. Once they have been in the streets for long the form social groups and networks which enable them to have some sort of adaptation and building of skills which makes them survive for years in the hostile environment which they are exposed to.ReferencesFinkelstein, M. (2004) With No Direction Home: Homeless Youth on the Road and in the Streets, Belmont: Wadsworth
Sunday, September 15, 2019
The topic sentence of the paragraph Is, a trip to the ocean can be a relaxing escape from everyday pressures of life. b. What sentence is unrelated to the topic and can be eliminated? The sentence that is unrelated to the topic is, you should always be careful to avoid overexposure to the sun at the beach. 2. List four things to look for when youÃ¢â¬â¢re proofreading. Four things you should look for while proofreading are, grammar, spelling, correct punctuation, and proper capitalization. 3. Complete the following two steps: a. Define the term cliche. The term cliche is a word, phrase, or idea that is over used. b. Write one sentence that contains a cliche. The mother said to the daughter angrily, Ã¢â¬Å"youÃ¢â¬â¢ll never get through school unless you get your act together. Ã¢â¬ Get your act together is the cliche. 4. Name and explain two types of prewriting. Brainstorming, make a list of every idea that comes to mind. Free writing, you fill a piece of paper with any idea that comes to mind about your topic. 5. Choose one of the topics listed below and write a five-sentence paragraph using chronological order To arrange the details of the paragraph. . Signing on to my homepage is simple. Signing on to my home page is simple. First, what I do when I turn on my computer, is click on the internet. Second, I go to the favorites tab and click High School Courses. This automatically pulls up the homepage. Then I go to the top left and click student login. Last, I type in my information and get to work. 6. Choose one of the followin g topics. Write an eight-sentence paragraph that fully develops the topic. d. A high school diploma is important to my future. I feel you canÃ¢â¬â¢t be successful in life without some form of education. For example, over the summer I attended a volunteer program at a Homeless shelter. My experience was not bad at all. In fact the people there were really nice. Every person I talked to had either dropped out of high school or did not apply themselves. Discussing with the people at the shelter made me realize my life wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t so bad and how having a education is a must in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. After that experience I decided that I needed to get my high school diploma so I do not have to struggle for the rest of my life. By writing this essay I have finally accomplished my goal.
This is a great activity that my kids loved after a solid review of what is in a First Aid Kit. Once your students have been introduced to these contents and understand their uses, have them apply their knowledge to real life situations with this activity. 1. Have students break into groups of 3-5. 2. I assigned students roles in their groups. (Time Keeper, Writer, Speaker, etc.) They all need to help discuss however. 2. Each group will receive an index card with a scenario on it. 3. Based on the scenario, students must decide which item(s) from their First Aid Kit they would use. They should write down the items they could use on the back of the note card. I have a spelling list on the board for younger grades. If supplies allow it, give each group a first aid kit so that they may simply grab the item for their scenario. Example of a Scenario: One of your friends cuts their leg and it begins to bleed. You need to help them clean the wound. What do you need to use from the First Aid Kit? Answer: Rubber Gloves, Cleansing Pads, Gauze, Antibacterial Ointment, etc. 4. Have each group go through their list and discuss with the class why itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to have each certain item. How does it help both the helper and whoever is injured? Make sure that you stress the importance to always find an adult first before performing first aid. Assessment Ideas: Perform assessment and evaluation throughout the entire lesson by having the students interact with thoughtful discussion based lecture and apply what they have learned by putting the index cards into the correct spots and answering why itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to know first aid safety. Tuesday Name of Activity: Counting on Groceries | Purpose of Activity: The purpose of the activity is for the students to comprehend concepts related to health promotion by moving in the gymnasium and learning about healthy food choices as well as doing a little basic math. Prerequisites: Counting to 6. Have some basic ideas of what good foods look like. Student will demonstrate healthy practice and behaviors to maintain or improve personal health. Suggested Grade Level: 2 Materials Needed: Enough foam dice so that each child has one Lots of plastic foods Two reusable shopping bags 4 green baskets (depending on how much Ã¢â¬Å"go foodÃ¢â¬ you have) 2 red baskets (depending on how much Ã¢â¬Å"whoa foodÃ¢â¬ you have) Description of Idea Place on shopping bag with lots of food choices in it toward one end of the play space. Place the other shopping bag also with lots of food choices in it toward the other end of the play space. This allows for more movement and less traffic jams. Place the color baskets in the center of the play space. The green baskets represent the Ã¢â¬Å"Go Foods Ã¢â¬â healthy food choicesÃ¢â¬ and the red baskets represent Ã¢â¬Å"Whoa Foods Ã¢â¬â foods we can only eat every once in a whileÃ¢â¬ . Each child will get 1 die. They will take the die to a self-space and roll the die one time. After rolling the die they need to count the spots. Each spot represents a piece of food they can get at the grocery store (shopping bags). Once they collect the correct amount of food from the bag to match the roll of the die they bring the food back to the baskets. Once at the baskets they sort the food into the green basket for go foods and red basket for whoa foods. After sorting the foods they go ba ck to their die and roll again. They continue to do this until the shopping bags are empty and the food is all sorted. After all food is sorted bring the children back to the center of the play area. Have them sit in a circle so they can all see the baskets. As the children to identify the foods in the basket and evaluate to see if they placed the foods in the correct baskets. Assessment Ideas: I was able to assess if the students could count to six by watching their die roll and seeing how many pieces of food they took when going to the shopping bag. I was able to watch the children sort the food and see if they were sorting correctly for the food choices they had. As a group I was able to assess the overall outcome by how successful they were overall with the sorting activity. Adaptations for Students with Disabilities: Kids with mobility problems could have an adult bring a basket to them so they could sort easier. Kids with visual difficulties could have the food identified for them and then have them tell another child or adult what basket to place to the food in. Kids could work in pairs if a child has trouble counting the spots on the die. Wednesday Name of Activity: Learning the food guide pyramid | Purpose of Activity: The learner will apply knowledge and behavior self-management skills to areas of nutrition and physical activity for healthy growth, development, and maintenance. Prerequisites: The student will choose habits that prevent hearth disease. : Students should have knowledge of the five food groups, how much of each food group they should be getting every day, and what makes up a Ã¢â¬Å"servingÃ¢â¬ of food. 115.2 Health Edu. (b)(1) (A) Suggested Grade Level: 2 Materials needed: -white board, -white board markers. -Class set of food calendar worksheets, -multiple sets of pyramid go fish game, -deck of cards Description of Idea Focus: What is everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s favorite food? (Make a chart on the white board, placing studentÃ¢â¬â¢s favorite foods under the category of the food pyramid in which it belongs) Explain which category the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s favorite foods fall under, which category we should have the most of (grains) and which the least of (fats and oils)? Statement of Objectives: To learn about the food guide pyramid and what foods are best for our bodies! Teacher Input: Can anyone name all the categories of the food guide pyramid? (Grains, vegetables, fruits, milk/dairy, meats & beans, and fats/sugars) Tell your neighbor what your favorite food is and which category it fell under? Now how much of all the other categories, as well as the one your favorite food falls under, do you think you should be eating each day? Grains- 6 ounces Vegetables- 2 Ã ½ ounces Fruits- 1Ã ½ cups Milk/dairy- 3 cups Meats & beans- 5 ounces Fats/sugars- know your limits Oils (although not a good group, they are needed in small amounts for good health) We eat these foods because they provide our bodies with the nutrients we need to do things. To run, walk, talk, think, smile, and GROW big and strong! All the categories of the food guide pyramid are like a puzzle, and if our body doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have all the pieces, it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t complete! Guided Practice: Can we discuss as a class, what are some healthy choices that we could eat from each of these categories. Examples: Grains (pasta, bread, rice), Vegetables (lettuce, spinach, broccoli, cucumbers, peppers), Fruits (bananas, strawberries, oranges, apples), Milk/dairy (milk, yogurt, cheese) Meats & beans (chicken, fish, lean beef, soybeans, dried beans). One important thing to know when deciding what you are going to eat for your each food guide pyramid portion size. We need six ounces of grains per day, and five ounces of meat/bean. What does this mean? Well three ounces can be described as the same width and size of a deck of cards (show example of a deck of cards). So remember that when eating. Now, letÃ¢â¬â¢s fill in this chart all together (the same food calendar worksheet passed out to class already) to help us think about what kinds of foods we would all eat throughout our meals to ensure we are eating all of the correct foods and serving amounts that the food guide pyramid tells us to. Who would like to raise their hand first, to tell me, what is a food we could eat with breakfast, which would help us reach our goal of meeting the food guide pyramid daily servings? Independent Practice: With three of your neighbors, take a few minutes to play Ã¢â¬Å"Pyramid Go Fish!Ã¢â¬ The dealer of your group shuffles the cards, then gives each player four cards, and puts the remaining cards in a stack in middle of everyone. Each player takes a turn asking another player if he/she has the pair to one of the four cards that they currently have in their hands. If two of the same cards are obtained, then the pair is laid down and counted as one point. When asking another player if he/she has a card and is answered Ã¢â¬Å"no, go fishÃ¢â¬ then the player who was denied must draw another card from the deck in the middle. If answered Ã¢â¬Å"YesÃ¢â¬ , then the player is given the card, lays down his/her pair, and gets to ask again if a fellow player has a card he/she needs. Whoever ends up with the most pairs wins? Closure: Raise your hand to tell me a food that may not be your favorite, but you like a lot, that falls into the food guide pyramidsÃ¢â¬â¢ categories. How much of this food do you usually eat when you have it? What are some fats/sugars that would be better to choose, rather than candy, ice cream and items like that? Make sure to go home tonight and talk to your family about what should be on your plate in order to have a well-balanced, healthy dinner tonight! Assessment Ideas: Psychomotor: The student will be able to play games related to the food guide pyramid. Cognitive: The student will be able to remember what the food guide pyramid categories are, what types of foods belong to each, how many servings pertain to each category, and why we should eat these foods. Affective: The student will be able to discuss good choices to eat from the food guide pyramid, determine how much of each pyramid category they should eat daily, and also be able to teach others about what they learned from the food guide pyramid. Thursday Name of Activity: Creating a First Aid Kit | Purpose of Activity: The student should know how to work in groups while making the first aid kit. They should also be able to list five items that should in a first aid kit and explain how they are used, as well as, go home and make a first aid kit. Prerequisites: Student should have had prior practice. The students should know the name of the items in the box and how to use all content in the box, also where it should be kept. And be skilled in common first aid procedures. 115.2 Health Edu (b) (1) (A) Suggested Grade Level: 2 Materials Needed: first-aid manual, sterile gauze, adhesive tape, adhesive bandages in several sizes, elastic bandage, antiseptic wipes, soap, antibiotic cream (triple-antibiotic ointment), antiseptic solution (like hydrogen peroxide), hydrocortisone cream (1%), acetaminophen and ibuprofen, extra prescription medications (if the family is going on vacation), tweezers, sharp scissors, safety pins, disposable instant cold packs, calamine lotion, alcohol wipes or ethyl alcohol, thermometer, plastic gloves (at least 2 pairs), flashlight and extra batteries, mouthpiece for administering CPR (can be obtained from your local Red Cross), your list of emergency phone numbers blanket (stored nearby), Plastic box, construction paper cut to 3Ãâ"5 in., markers, sandwich bags, take home handouts with the list of items for kit and how to make a kit, First aid assessment sheet, the in class worksheet for with blank spaces for students to fill in descriptions Description of Idea Statement of Objectives: Once we have finished creating our classroom first aid kit you will be able to go home and make your own first aid kit with your parents and identify all the parts that are found in the kit. Teacher Input: Ask students, Ã¢â¬Å"Have you ever seen a first aid kit?Ã¢â¬ ask them to raise their hand. Ã¢â¬Å"Where do you usually see first aid kits?Ã¢â¬ call on a few, give positive feedback. Tell the students that a first aid kit is a good thing to have anywhere. Give examples: in the car, at home, at the playground. Tell the children how you never know when you may have a emergency that will require immediate action. Put up a slide showing the standard list of items, with their descriptions, found in a kit. Point to each item say the name and have the class repeat the name. Guided Practice: After going through the list once give each student the handout that matches the slide telling them to follow along and take notes of the descriptions of use as you move down the list. Tell the classroom that this information was provided to them by the White Lake Fire Department. This time instead of pointing only to the slide use the items you have already sat on the desk that will go in your kit to show the students a visual of the item as you describe it while they take notes. After going over an item start passing it through the class giving each student an opportunity to look closely at each item. Once you reach the end have them fill in the last three spaces with things they think would be nice to have in a first aid kit. This can be something serious like glow sticks, matches or fun such as a coloring book or small stuffed animal. Independent Practice: Assign children into groups of no more than five. Give each group a sandwich bag and the construction paper squares. Tell the students to make their own first aid kit by writing the name of each item on the paper provided. Tell the groups to switch bags and empty the contents checking to make sure each piece is there. Before they check the new bags explain to the students the importance of going through the first aid kit every few months to make sure all the items are still there and that none of the items are out of date or damaged. Closure: Give positive feedback on what a wonderful job they have done so far. Go back to the table with all the items for the first aid kit and have each child come up and pick and item to go in the class box. Ask the student, Ã¢â¬Å"Can you tell everyone what this item is and what we would use this item for?Ã¢â¬ Let each child have a turn if possible. Pass out the First Aid Lesson assessment and have the children complete and hand in. After the box is complete encourage the children to go home and talk to their parents about making their own kit Friday Name of Activity: Nutrition Scooter Relay | Purpose of Activity: The students will be able to demonstrate safe scooter travel and will be able to correctly identify foods from the six food pyramid groups. Prerequisites: Students should have knowledge of the five food groups, how much of each food group they should be getting every day, and what makes up a Ã¢â¬Å"servingÃ¢â¬ of food. Suggested Grade Level: 2 Materials Needed: 1. four wheeled scooters (enough for half your class) 2. Pictures of foods from the six food groups (around 100-150 pictures) Description of Idea I like to use this relay as a culminating activity for learning about the six food groups. Divide the students into pairs and have them spread out along one side of the gym with one scooter per pair. Spread out pictures of food from the six food groups along the opposite side of the gym. I like to use food group pictures that I ordered from a Dairy Council catalog that allots free monies to teachers every year, but any assortment of pictures will work. It is also nice to tack up a picture of the food pyramid on the same side of the gym that you spread out the pictures for struggling students to use as a resource. Once the gym is set up, give the signal to begin. One student from each group must travel on the scooter down to the opposite end of the gym while the other student runs/skips/gallops/etc. beside his/her partner on the scooter. The partner on the scooter must travel on his/her bottom or knees. Once they have made it to the opposite side each group must pick six different foods pictures of food that fit into the six food group categories before returning. Partners can check with each other and the food pyramid poster to make sure they have all six before returning. They must go back the same way they came, with the same partner on the scooter and the same partner moving alongside the scooter. Once the first group has returned, begin counting down from 30 seconds, signaling to the other groups that they need to get back to the other side of the gym before time runs out with whatever pictures they have. Once everyone is back, they can take 30 seconds to show their items to another group to double check their choices. Once the 30 seconds are up, collect all the food from the students, have them switch places and go again! While they race down, replace the food you have collected so that they can use those pictures again for the following round. The kids LOVE this game, and it gives the students multiple opportunities to check their knowledge with other students while giving me many opportunities to walk around and assess student learning levels. Assessment Ideas: I have assessed student learning and comprehension levels in different ways for this game. Sometimes I use a check-sheet to mark that can correctly identify and place foods within the correct food groups, and sometimes (with the second graders) I use self-assessment charts where students can mark their own levels of understanding. Since this activity takes place at the end of my nutrition unit I usually already have a pretty good idea of who can and canÃ¢â¬â¢t identify foods and correctly place them within the six food groups, so this just gives me one more opportunity to check for understanding.